LOS ANGELES — In explaining why WarnerMedia had determined to launch the much-anticipated big-budget “Wonder Woman 1984” concurrently in theaters and on the streaming service HBO Max on Christmas Day, the corporate’s chief govt, Jason Kilar, invoked the basic Hollywood movie “The Wizard of Oz.”
“We’re not in Kansas anymore,” Mr. Kilar said in a press release.
No longer, he mentioned, would a movie’s success be judged solely by the box office income it generates in theaters. Instead, it might be measured partly by the variety of HBO Max subscribers it is ready to entice. And similar to Dorothy getting into the Technicolor world of Oz, Hollywood feels as whether it is stepping right into a new period — one with streaming on the middle.
The end-of-the-year vacation season normally means that theaters are packed with blockbuster crowd pleasers, award hopefuls — and moviegoers. Not this yr. With many theaters shut due to the coronavirus and those that are open struggling to draw audiences, many studios have both pushed the discharge dates of main movies into 2021 or created a hybrid mannequin in which the theaters nonetheless in operation can present new releases while they’re additionally made out there by way of streaming or on-demand companies.
“Wonder Woman 1984” is probably the most distinguished instance to this point to be launched utilizing the hybrid mannequin. But when it seems on HBO Max on Christmas Day, it will be a part of Pixar’s animated “Soul,” and DreamWorks Animation’s “The Croods: A New Age” as marquee, holiday-season movies that have been anticipated to be box office favorites however are actually more likely to be primarily seen in people’s residing rooms.
For firms that have their very own streaming platforms, like WarnerMedia and Disney, releasing motion pictures this manner is now seen as a possibility to drive subscriptions. Both firms have mentioned that the strikes will solely final by way of the pandemic, however additionally they each lately shuffled their govt obligations to make it clear that streaming is the new precedence. (Disney, for instance, now has a central division that decides how its content material is distributed, a change in technique that places Disney+ on the top of the studio’s priorities.) And audiences could not need studios to return to the previous method of releasing movies that gave theaters 90 days of unique rights.
“There will be a new normal,” mentioned Jason Squire, editor of “The Movie Business Book” and a professor on the University of Southern California’s School of Cinematic Arts. “Over the years, there has been a lot of tension between theatrical exhibition and studio distribution but not a lot of change. The pandemic has jump-started the change.”
It wasn’t way back that Hollywood considered streaming as an unwelcome insurgency. Several years in the past, when Netflix started to noticeably compete for Oscars, traditionalists scoffed on the considered bestowing prestigious awards on movies that have been solely nominally launched theatrically. (This yr, bowing to pandemic actuality, the movement image academy introduced that movies might skip a theatrical launch and be eligible for Oscar consideration.)
Still, studios have lengthy wished to shorten the unique window given to theaters. Theater chains aggressively lobbied in opposition to that, frightened that people can be reluctant to purchase tickets to a movie they might quickly see at house.
The sanctity of the theatrical launch was being zealously guarded even after the pandemic lockdowns started. In April, Universal Pictures had a profitable video-on-demand launch for “Trolls World Tour” and mentioned it might make extra motion pictures out there that method with out an unique theatrical run. Adam Aron, the chief govt of AMC, the most important theater operator on the earth, known as the transfer “categorically unacceptable” and mentioned his firm would now not ebook any Universal movies.
By July, nonetheless, the 2 firms signed a multiyear deal whereby Universal motion pictures would play in AMC theaters for no less than 17 days earlier than changing into out there in properties by way of premium video-on-demand, or P.V.O.D. in trade parlance. This previous week, Universal signed comparable offers with Cinemark, the third-largest theater chain in North America, and Cineplex, Canada’s top exhibitor, including the supply that for motion pictures opening to $50 million in ticket gross sales, the unique theatrical window will stretch to 31 days.
The shortened window means the studio can theoretically spend much less on advertising and marketing than is usually required when theatrical and residential video debuts are three months aside. And studios sometimes maintain 80 % of premium on-demand income, while ticket gross sales from theatrical releases are cut up roughly 50-50 between studios and theater firms.
“Our hope is that by putting P.V.O.D. into the marketplace, we are improving the economics for the studio and as a result of that there will be more films that will get released theatrically,” mentioned Peter Levinsohn, vice chairman and chief distribution officer for Universal. “The whole goal here is to have more efficiencies in our marketing, keep the films more profitable and stop the films from being sold off” to subscription companies like Netflix or Amazon.
Warner Bros. selected to defend the tried-and-true theatrical mannequin, hoping that Christopher Nolan’s “Tenet” would draw people again to theaters this summer time after the primary wave of the virus handed and 68 % of American theaters have been in a position to reopen. But with theaters nonetheless closed within the two largest markets, New York and Los Angeles, the movie solely grossed $56 million in its complete U.S. run. That was a far cry from Mr. Nolan’s earlier theatrical achievements, like “Interstellar,” which earned $188 million domestically, and a stark warning to other distributors that the normal method of releasing movies was not going to work in 2020.
Today, the theatrical local weather is extra grim. Half of the theaters within the United States are closed and virus cases are rising across the nation. Regal Cinemas, the second-largest chain within the U.S., has closed all of its theaters, citing a scarcity of movies and viewers. If there’s not a federal grant program out there to theaters quickly, John Fithian, chief govt of the theaters’ nationwide commerce affiliation, mentioned he expects 70 % of them will both shut completely or file for chapter by early subsequent yr.
Big-budget spectacles have stored audiences flocking to movie theaters even by way of waves of house leisure competitors, from VCRs to streaming. That’s benefited each theater chains and studios, and it’s why few count on motion pictures of the scale of “Wonder Woman 1984” to be going on to streaming post-pandemic.
A transfer away from theaters would have an effect on what sorts of movies are made. In quick, if there’s much less box office cash to be collected — due to a discount within the variety of movie theaters or a everlasting shift in shopper conduct — studios can be compelled to make fewer big-budget movies. For those that imagine Hollywood has grow to be too reliant on lumbering superhero motion pictures, that may very well be welcome information. The hundreds of people every of these movies make use of would undoubtedly have a special perspective.
But others aren’t positive the change will be so drastic, pointing to the facility of the theatrical expertise.
Charles Roven, a producer for “Wonder Woman 1984,” mentioned in an interview that he was assured that its launch was not an indication of a new long-term technique. “There is no question they want to make HBO Max successful and they should,” he mentioned of Warner Bros. “But to say that this particular thing is what’s going to happen in the future, that would be taking a leap.”
Disney selected to bypass U.S. theaters altogether and launch the $200 million “Mulan” on Disney+ in September, charging subscribers $30 on top of their month-to-month price to look at the live-action adaptation of the animated movie. Sales have been harm by an outcry over a filming location in China, however Bob Chapek, Disney’s chief govt, instructed analysts earlier this month that he noticed “enough very positive results before that controversy started to know that we’ve got something here in terms of the premier access strategy.” Disney is planning to ship a number of extra big-budget motion pictures to Disney+.
For studios with out their very own streaming companies, the calculus is a bit totally different. While many opted to postpone their theatrical releases till 2021, others offered off movies as a option to recoup some money. Paramount offloaded “The Trial of the Chicago 7” to Netflix and “Coming to America 2” to Amazon, for instance. In a twist, Netflix is at present one of many few studios nonetheless sending product to the struggling chains. From now to the top of the yr, Netflix will give eight of its movies restricted theatrical runs earlier than they seem on the service, together with potential Oscar contenders like “Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom” and David Fincher’s “Mank.”
Universal is the other massive studio nonetheless supplying movies to theaters, buoyed by its new P.V.O.D. offers with theaters that enable it to distribute each bigger motion pictures just like the “Croods” sequel and smaller movies from its indie subsidiary, Focus Features.
That’s excellent news for Bobbie Bagby Ford, an govt vice chairman on the family-owned B&B Theaters, the nation’s sixth-largest theater chain based mostly in Liberty, Mo.
Ms. Bagby Ford mentioned that earlier than the pandemic her firm wouldn’t have accepted Warner’s plan to launch “Wonder Woman 1984″ in theaters and on HBO Max at the same time. Now though, any opportunity to show a film that could do some actual business would be a relief for a company that is staving off bankruptcy.
“Our moviegoers in the Midwest are very excited to come back, and they have been asking about ‘Wonder Woman’ for months and months and months,” Ms. Bagby Ford mentioned.
Mr. Kilar, WarnerMedia’s chief, said in his statement that the pandemic was the main reason to release “Wonder Woman 1984” in theaters and through streaming. But he also noted how the move put the control of how to watch the film firmly in the hands of the audience.
“A little over four million fans in the U.S. enjoyed the first ‘Wonder Woman’ movie on its opening day in 2017,” Mr. Kilar wrote. “Is it possible for that to happen again this Christmas with ‘Wonder Woman 1984’ between theaters and HBO Max? We are so excited to find out, doing everything in our power to provide the power of choice to fans.”
Should that work, it’s unlikely things will ever be the same.